DATA PROCESSINGData processing is the sequence of operations performed on data to convert it into useful information. These operations may be arithmetic, statistical or logical operations. We can
arrange or classify data. We can send and receive data from one point to another.
TYPES OF DATA PROCESSING (OR) LEVELS OF DATA PROCESSING)
There are three types of data processing.
1) Manual data processing
2) Mechanical data processing
3) Electronic data processing
1) Manual data processingIn manual data processing data is processed manually. No machine or tool is used.
All the calculations on data are performed manually. This is a slow method and errors may occur. This is an old method. It was used before the invention of calculators. But data is still processed manually in many small shops.
Example: A book seller ( a small book shop ) records his daily transactions manually. He prepares bills by pen,paper and carbon paper ( no doubt, brain is the main data processor in this case ). At the end of day he will use carbon copies made on a particular date to know how many books he sold and how much income he got.
2) Mechanical Data Processing
In mechanical data processing data is processed with the help of devices or machines. These machines that help the people in data processing may be calculators and type writers etc. Obviously, this method is faster easier and more accurate than manual data processing.
Example: Book seller can use a calculator to speed up his data processing system. There will be a less chance of errors in calculations. Bill calculations will be much more faster with a calculator and easier too.
3) Electronic data processingIt is the latest and fastest method of data processing. Data is processed with the help of computer. First of all, data and set of instructions are given to the computer. Computer gives output results after processing the data according to instructions. This method of data processing is very fast and accurate. Electronic data processing is used in banks and business firms, Government offices, colleges, schools, universities, businesses and other institutes. Electronic data processing is being used in almost every field of life. Example:Suppose there are 800 students in a college. There is a manual library sytem in this college. If we want to know which students have not returned books since one year? We will have to search registers for 800 students’ record. But computer can do this job with in seconds.
In short, we can say that:Electronic data processing:
i) is more fast
ii) is less time consuming
iii) can process large amounts of data easily
iv) can present information in more attractive way
v) will give 100 % error free results, if input and instructions are accurate.