Super Easy Short Computer Notes To Improve Computer Literacy and Your IT Skills

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Sunday, September 25, 2011

Important Objective Type Questions 101-155

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  1. MMC stands for multimedia card.
  2. SD stands for secure digital card.
  3. System Bus  is used to connect main components of a computer such as cpu and main memory.
  4. A Port is an interface or a point of attachments.
  5. POS stands for Point Of Sale terminal.
  6. ATM stands for Automated Teller Machine.
  7. PIN stands for Personal identification number.
  8. Kbps stands for kilobits per second.
  9. Mbps stands for megabits per second.
  10. A port that transmits one bit at a time is called Serial Port.
  11. A type of port that transmits many bits at a time is called Parallel Port.
  12. LPT stands for Line Printer.
  13. Examples of system software are Operating System, Utility Programs and Device Drivers.
  14. Examples of operating systems are DOS, Windows, Unix and Linux.
  15. Examples of Utility programs are File Manager, Image Viewer, Disk Scanner and File Compressor.
  16. Software used to detect and remove viruses is called Antivirus.
  17. Examples of antivirus programs are Mcaffee, Avast, Symantec, Norton, AVG and Avira antivirus.
  18. Name of two free antivirus programs are Avast and Avira.
  19. Instructions of Machine language are written in binary form.
  20. Assembly language is a low level language.
  21. Names of high level languages are C, C++, Java, BASIC and COBOL.
  22. SQL stands for structured query language.
  23. A Compiler translates the instructions of high level language into machine language as a whole.
  24. A program written in high level language is called source code.
  25. A program in machine language is called object program or object code.
  26. Every computer that is a part of a network is called a terminal or node.
  27. A server computer works a s a central computer in a network.
  28. The main types of computer network are: LAN, MAN and WAN.
  29. HUB is also called concentrator.
  30. HUB is also called multistation access unit  or MAU.
  31. NIC stands for Network Interface Card.
  32. Network interface card is also called a LAN CARD or LAN adapter.
  33. Names of three network topologies are Star, Tree and BUS.
  34. In a mesh topology, every device is connected directly to all other devices in network.
  35. In Simplex mode, data can flow only in one direction.
  36. In Half-duplex Mode data can flow in both direction but not at the same time.
  37. In full duplex mode data can flow in both directions at the same time.
  38. Modem is a device that converts digital signals into analog and analog signals into digital.
  39. Modulation is the process of converting digital signal into analog signal.
  40. Demodulation is the process of converting analog signal into digital signal.
  41. Data is the collection of raw facts and figures.
  42. Processed data is called information.
  43. GUI stands for graphical user interface.
  44. Loading and executing multiple programs at the same time is called Multitasking.
  45. Supporting the use of multiple processors is called Multiprocessing.
  46. ARPANET stands for Advance Research Project Agency.
  47. PROTOCOL is the collection of rules.
  48. DARPA stands for Defense Advance Research Project Agency.
  49. DSL stands for Digital Subscriber Line.
  50. ISDN stands for Integrated Services digital network.
  51. IRC stands for Internet Relay Chat.
  52. IM stands for instant messaging.
  53. Domain name is the unique name given to a website.
  54. If different parts of same image are linked with different web pages, it is called image map.
  55. A web server is a computer that is used to store information for users on the internet.

1. Important
objective type questions 1-50


2. Important
Objective Type Questions 51-100


3. Important
Objective Type Questions 101-155

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Important Objective Type Questions 51-100

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  1. (70)10 = (1000110). [ divide 70 by 2 repeatedly until quotient is zero, write down remainders from bottom to top.]
  2. NTFS is abbreviation for new technology file system     .
  3. USB stands for Universal serial Bus.
  4. AGP stands for Accelerated graphical port.
  5. Roman number system is an example of non-positional number system.
  6. PPP stands for point-to-point protocol.
  7. SCSI is pronounced as Small computer system interface.
  8. MS Excel is an example of Applications software.
  9. Windows is an example of          system           software.
  10. WAN as a network stands for    wide area network.
  11. DNS stands for Domain name server.
  12. CPS stands for   Character per second.
  13. BIOS stands for   Basic input-output system.
  14. LCD stands for Liquid crystal display     .
  15. POST stands for   ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­_Power  ON Self Test
  16. How many rows are in MS Excel _65536.
  17. Modem stands for Modulator and demodulator.
  18. CPM stands for Character per minute
  19. ENIAC stands for Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator.
  20. EDVAC stands for Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic calculator.
  21. UNIVAC Stands for Universal Automatic Computer.
  22. IBM stands for International Business Machines.
  23. A Hybrid computer is a combination of both analog and digital computer.
  24. Speedo meter is an example of analog computer.
  25. Micro computer or personal computer was introduced in 1970.
  26. PDA stands for Personal Digital Assistant.
  27. Super computer is used for weather prediction.
  28. Abacus was first computing device developed 5000 years ago.
  29. Mouse and keyboard are input devices.
  30. Monitor and Printer are two output devices.
  31. PROM stands for Programmable Read only Memory
  32. EPROM stands for Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory.
  33. EEPROM stands for Electronically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory.
  34. SRAM stands for Static Random Access Memory.
  35. DRAM stands for Dynamic Random Access Memory.
  36. Names of two search engines are Google and Yahoo.
  37. CMOS stands for Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor .
  38. BIOS stands for Basic Input Output System.
  39. RPM stands for Rotations Per Minute.
  40. The number of bytes inside a sector is fixed, it is always 512 bytes.
  41. CD-ROM stands for Compact Disk Read Only memory.
  42. CD-R stands for Compact Disk Recordable.
  43. CD-RW stands for Compact disk Rewritable.
  44. WORM stands for Write Once Read Many.
  45. DVD stands for Digital Video Disk.
  46. DVD-ROM stands for Digital video disk Read only memory.
  47. DVD-R stands for Digital video disk recordable.
  48. DVD-RW stands for Digital Video disk Rewritable.
  49. USB stands for Universal Serial Bus.
  50. CF stands for Compact flash card.
1. Important
objective type questions 1-50


2. Important
Objective Type Questions 51-100


3. Important
Ojective Type Questions 101-155
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Important objective type questions 1-50

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  1. FTP stand for     file transfer protocol.
  2. Lady ADA is the mother of computer.
  3.    VINT CERF     is the father of Internet.
  4. Nibble consists of   4   bits.
  5.   Google     and   Yahoo   are the two search engines.
  6. TCP/IP stands for Transmission control protocol/Internet protocol.
  7. One sector on Hard Disk holds   512    bytes. 
  8. Dos, window and UNIX are three operating systems.
  9. Demodulation converts Analog signal into Digital signal.
  10. ARPANET stands for advanced research project agency network.
  11. URL stands for uniform resource locator.
  12. Charles Babbage is the father of computer.
  13. Lady ADA is the first computer programmer.
  14. Nibble contains 04 numbers of bits.
  15. Name Two Mail service mail Yahoo.com.
  16. VOIP stands for Voice over internet protocol.
  17. One sector holds 512 numbers of bytes.
  18. Name two different Operating systems DOS and Windows.
  19. The process of demodulation converts digital signal into analog signal.
  20. URL stands for Uniform Resource Locator.
  21. Bit stands for Binary digits.
  22. The smallest unit with which any disk can work is called Byte.
  23. HTML stands for hypertext markup language.
  24. Flow Chart is pictorial representation of an algorithm.
  25. Rules that govern the data over Internet are called Internet protocol.
  26. Pixel stands for picture element.
  27. MAN stands for matropoliton area network.
  28. In Ms Word, short key for changing the case of letter is shift +F3.
  29. In Ms Excel, the shortcut key to insert current time is CTRL + : and for current date is CTRL + ;
  30. Byte is the basic storage unit in a general-purpose computer.
  31. Flow chart can be regarded as graphically representation of algorithm.
  32. LASER stands for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation.
  33. LCD as in LCD monitor stands for liquid crystal display. and LED stands for Light emitting Diode
  34. Information can be regarded as processed data.
  35. Collection of 8 bits is called a byte whereas collection of 4 bits is called   Nibble.
  36. A word, in computer terminology contains     16    bits.
  37. CRT as in CRT monitor stands for cathode ray tube.
  38. VAN as a network stands for value added network.
  39. ANSI stands for American National standards Institute.
  40. Radix for Octal Number System is     8.
  41. HUB is an abbreviation for _Hellenic United Backbone.
  42. FAT stands for   file allocation table.
  43.     Flow chart   may be considered as the graphical counterpart of an algorithm.
  44. Algorithm is a step-by-step procedure to solve a particular problem.
  45. (80)10 =    (1010000)2 [ divide 80 by 2 repeatedly until quotient is zero, write down remainders from bottom to top.]
  46. ASCII is an abbreviation for American standard Code for Information Interchange.
  47. BCD stands for Binary coded decimal.
  48. SDLC stands for system development life cycle.
  49. In Ms Office Suite, the shortcut key for CLOSE ALL is   Alt + F4.
  50. PCI is an abbreviation for   peripheral component Interconnect.
1. Important
objective type questions 1-50


2. Important
Objective Type Questions 51-100


3. Important
Ojective Type Questions 101-155
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Sunday, September 18, 2011

Advantages / Disadvantages Of Internet

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ADVANTAGES OF INTERNET




Following are the main advantages of internet:

1. THE WORLD WIDE WEB

This is also called web or www or 3w. The collection of all web pages in all web sites on internet is called www. These web pages provide us information.

2. E-MAIL

E-mail stands for electronic mail. It is the most popular, cheap, easy and fastest mailing service. We can send and receive messages on internet with in seconds or minutes.

3. NEWSGROUPS

Newsgroups are discussion groups on internet. They are used for free exchange of information.

4. MAILING LISTS

Mailing lists provide information to the users on the selected topics through email. Mailing lists are maintained by different companies.

5. ONLINE BANKING

Several banks are online now. So we can manage our bank accounts on internet. Due to online banking, money is transferred from one city or country to another within seconds or minutes.

6. E-COMMERCE

E-commerce means the electronic commerce. It means that doing business on internet. Now we can sell and purchase goods from any where in the world through internet.

7. JOB SEARCH

You can search jobs on internet. There are many job seeking sites on internet.

8. SEARCH ENGINE

Internet contains a very large amount of information. Search engine is used to easily and quickly find the required information. Many sites provide facility of search engine like Google, Yahoo, Find, Lycos and AltaVista.

9. CHAT

It is the most popular services by which two users can live chat with each other. It is just like talking on telephone. We can chat by text or audio or video. Messenger software like Yahoo messenger or MSN messenger is used for chatting.

10. INTERNET PHONE

We can call on phone to some one on internet. This is cheaper than calling by ordinary phone.

11. FAX

Fax messages can be sent to persons that use fax machines.

12. FUN AND ENTERTAINMENT

You can find films, cartoons, audio and video songs on internet.

13. EDUCATION

There many web sites that provide educational facilities. So education can be achieved online.

14. NEWS PAPERS

Now many newspapers have their websites. We can read news from internet now.

15. DOWNLOAD FREE SOFTWARE

We can download (save in our computer) free software from internet.

16. UPLOAD INFORMATION

We can upload information (send from our computer) on internet. So that this information will be available for internet users.

17. HOTEL RESERVATION

You can get reserved a room for you in a hotel. Several hotels are online now.

18. ONLINE SHOPPING

You can do all types of shopping on internet.

19. DOWNLOAD GAMES

You can download computer games from internet.

20. Traveling Guides

You can find information about any country of the world on internet. You can find maps of any country and big cities.

DISADVANTAGES OF INTERNET

1. HACKING

Hackers access the important information and programs and may destroy it. Hackers try to get password of internet users and then access important information.

2. COMPUTER VIRUS

Computer virus is a program developed for some destructive purpose. Computer virus can destroy your data or software. Virus enters into your computer by internet, floppy disc, CD or USB flash memory drive. Antivirus software like Norton Antivirus and Mcafee Antivirus are used to find and remove virus.

3. WASTAGE OF TIME

There are so many interesting facilities on internet. So people use internet for several hours. In this way valuable time is wasted.

4. EDUCATIONAL LOSS OF STUDENTS

Students spend much time in internet café. So they waste their time and do not attend their studies properly.

5. ONLINE ROBBERY

Important documents are stolen on internet. Passwords of credit cards are stolen on internet. This can do financial loss.

6. IMMORAL WEB SITES / PORNOGRAPHY

There are many immoral sites on internet. This is destroying high values of the societies that don't allow such sexual  material or illegal sexual relations. PORN websites are destroying character of  the preteen and teenagers. There is a strong need to stop / filter porn websites in our country.

7. LOSS OF MONEY

Internet is not free. Internet users pay monthly charges to ISPs. Moreover, electricity bill is also increased by using computer and internet for many hours daily.

7. LOSS OF HEALTH

Most of the users use internet for long time daily. They sit before computer for many hours. This may create health problems like weak eye sight, tiredness, fatigue, headache etc.

8. SOCIAL DISCONNECTION

Internet users give most of time to computer and internet. They always like to sit before computer. They have no time for their friends or family members or relatives. They like to eat while using internet for chatting, on facebook or youtube. They are cut off the external world just for internet. This social disconnection creates many problems.
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Services Of Internet

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SERVICES PROVIDED BY INTERNET

Important services provided by internet are as the following:

1. THE WORLD WIDE WEB

This is also called web or www or 3w. The collection of all web pages in all web sites on Internet is called www. These web pages provide us information in the form of text, pictures, audio and video formats etc.

2. E-MAIL

E-mail stands for electronic mail. It is the most popular, cheap, easy and fastest mailing service. We can send and receive messages on internet with in seconds or minutes.

3. EMAIL DISCUSSION GROUPS

These are used to discuss different topics with other people by email.

4. NEWSGROUPS

Newsgroups are discussion groups on internet. They are used for free exchange of information. A user sends a message to the news group site. Other users read this message from this site and reply. Newsgroups are provided by special computers called news servers.

5. ECOMMERCE

It stands for Electronic Commerce. E-commerce means to carry out business dealings by internet. Examples of Ecommerce include:
Online Banking, Online shopping and online education etc.

6. FTP

FTP stands for file transfer protocol. It is used to transfer files on internet easily and quickly. Audio, video, graphics and data files can be uploaded and downloaded using FTP.

7. TELNET

This program is used to access a remote computer on internet. You can access data and files from connected computer by Telnet. Telnet may also provide you a user interface on screen. You will give commands to remote computer by this user interface.

8. CHAT

It is the most popular services by which two or more users can live chat with each other. We can chat by text or audio or video. Voice chat is just like talking on telephone. Messenger software like Yahoo messenger or MSN messenger is used for chatting.

9. GOPHER

A gopher on the Internet is a system for users to search for files via menus or directory structures. It uses plain English names and is text based only.
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Saturday, September 17, 2011

Explain Internet and History of Internet

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INTERNET



Internet is the network of networks around the world. It is made up of thousands of smaller networks. It is a global communication system. We can send and receive information from a city or country to another through Internet.

Main components of Internet are computers, communication media and modem etc. Modem is used to send and receive information though telephone lines.
   

Internet provides following main facilities:

               ·    E- mail
               ·    Chat
               ·    Searching jobs
               ·    Advertising for business
               ·    E-commerce
               ·    Searching information

To use Internet we must have

 ·    suitable computer
 ·    telephone line
 ·    modem
 ·    web browser (for example, internet explorer)
 ·    Internet connection or scratch card of an ISP

HISTORY OF INTERNET

1) ARPANET  

The seeds of internet were planted in 1969 by Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) of US department of Defense. ARPA began to connect computers at different universities and defense contractors. This network was named ARPANET. The goal of ARPANET was to create a large network using telephone lines that could survive a nuclear attack or earthquake. Secondly, It also linked researchers at remote places to share the research work.
ARPANET continued to develop through the 70s. Before the 80s there were fewer than 100 sites on the e Internet.

2) NSFNET

In 80s US defense department stopped funding the ARPANET. In the mid-80s the National Science Foundation (NSF) joined the project. NSF developed the network to connect supercomputer centers in the US.
ARPANET was unable to handle rapidly increasing load of users. So NSF developed a new and higher capacity network called NSFNET.

3) INTERNET

At this point many colleges and universities were encouraged to connect to the network. The number of sites began to increase rapidly. There were more than 100,000 sites in 1989. Similar networks were established in other countries in the world. The ARPANET, NSFNET and other networks were interconnected. The process of connecting different networks together is called INTERNETWORKING. So this world wide network of networks was named as INTERNET.

4) Internet Backbones

NSFNET provided internet connections for academic research. But NSFNET did not permit users to do private business on internet. Therefore, many telecommunication companies created their own network backbones. Network back bones consist of high-speed data lines to carry huge volume of traffic. Local networks connect to these backbones.
In 1990 ARPANET was shut down. In 1995, government funding for NSFNET was discontinued. So commercial internet back bone services replaced them.

5) Business on Internet

In the early 90s businesses were allowed on the internet.

6) Internet Service providers

Since 1996, most of the internet traffic is carried by independent Internet Service Providers. Now at a very low cost, computers of offices, homes, institutes, hotels and net cafes etc can be connected to internet.
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Wednesday, September 14, 2011

Electronic Data Processing In Business

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NEED OF ELECTRONIC DATA PROCESSING

Today, no business can exist without information. There is no more business without information. To improve the business there is a need to improve data processing and information system. Now it’s the age of competition that involves information technology for faster and accurate data processing. These days computer is playing a main role in every field of life. It is also playing a central role in business. In business, a large amount of data has to be processed daily. It is impossible to process such a large amount of data without a computer. We know that a computer can process data accurately and quickly. The need of data processing in business is clear. Following are the reasons:


1) RECORD KEEPING

An organization cannot exist without records. Record keeping is a difficult and complex problem. Electronic data processing has simplified it. Receiving, storing, processing and retrieving records is now a matter of seconds.

2) ACCESSING AND SEARCHING RECORDS


We can access desired record rapidly. In manual processing it will take many days to search for specific records. With the help of computer records can be searched with in seconds or minutes.

3) DATABASE SYSTEMS

Electronic data processing is used to maintain a database for a business organization. Database is reliable resource of data and information.

4) COMMUNICATION



 

Users can send emails, faxes and access internet.

5) COST

In electronic data processing, the cost of processing is 10 times less than that of manual or mechanical data processing. A few can do the whole data processing with the help of computer.

6) SPEED




In a large business organization, thousands of records are processed daily. This cannot be done manually. Computer can do this work at a great speed.

7) ACCURACY

Speed with accuracy is the prime goal of data processing. Computer can large amount of data with 100 % accuracy. Errors and mistakes are associated with human beings.

8) NO REPETITION




In manual data processing there are repetition of same records in many files. But in electronic data processing there is no repetition of records.

9) PAYROLL, ACCOUNTING, STOCK SYSTEMS

In every business organization there is record keeping for pay of employees, stocks and accounting system. These systems can be maintained efficiently with electronic data processing.

10) REPORTS

The business data is analyzed by computer. Computer generates reports that are used by management for decision-making.
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Tuesday, September 13, 2011

Types of Data Processing

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DATA PROCESSING

Data processing is the sequence of operations performed on data to convert it into useful information. These operations may be arithmetic, statistical or logical operations. We can
arrange or classify data. We can send and receive data from one point to another.

TYPES OF DATA PROCESSING (OR) LEVELS OF DATA PROCESSING)

There are three types of data processing.
1) Manual data processing
2) Mechanical data processing
3) Electronic data processing

1) Manual data processing

In manual data processing data is processed manually. No machine or tool is used.


All the calculations on data are performed manually. This is a slow method and errors may occur. This is an old method. It was used before the invention of calculators. But data is still processed manually in many small shops.
Example: A book seller ( a small book shop ) records his daily transactions manually. He prepares bills by pen,paper and carbon paper ( no doubt, brain is the main data processor in this case ). At the end of day he will use carbon copies made on a particular date to know how many books he sold and how much income he got.

2) Mechanical Data Processing




In mechanical data processing data is processed with the help of  devices or machines. These machines that help the people in data processing may be calculators and type writers etc. Obviously, this method is faster easier and more accurate than manual data processing.


Example: Book seller can use a calculator to speed up his data processing system. There will be a less chance of errors in calculations. Bill calculations will be much more faster with a calculator and easier too.

3) Electronic data processing

It is the latest and fastest method of data processing. Data is processed with the help of computer. First of all, data and set of instructions are given to the computer. Computer gives output results after processing the data according to instructions. This method of data processing is very fast and accurate. Electronic data processing is used in banks and business firms, Government offices, colleges, schools, universities, businesses and other institutes. Electronic data processing is being used in almost every field of life. Example:Suppose there are 800 students in a college. There is a manual library sytem in this college. If we want to know which students have not returned books since one year? We will have to search registers for 800 students’ record. But computer can do this job with in seconds.


In short, we can say that:Electronic data processing:
i) is more fast
ii) is less time consuming
iii) can process large amounts of data easily
iv) can present information in more attractive way
v) will give 100 % error free results, if input and instructions are accurate.
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