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Friday, March 30, 2012

CRT Monitors and Flat-panel LCD Monitors Differences

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Differences between CRT
Monitors and Flat-panel (LCD) Monitors
CRT Monitors Flat-panel (LCD)Monitors
1 CRT monitors are low-priced and more economical
than flat-panel (LCD) monitors.
Flat-panel monitors are more costly than CRT
monitors.
2 Commonly, CRT monitors are used with personal
computers.
In the beginning LCD monitors were used in lap
top or note book computers, PDAs and smart phones. But now they available
for PCs, too. 
3 CRT monitors use Cathode Ray Tube (picture tube)
Technology to show text and graphics on screen.
Flat-panel monitors use LCD - Liquid Crystal
Display technology or Gas Plasma technology.
4 CRT monitors need more power. LCD monitors uses less energy than CRT monitors.
5 CRT monitors take more space on desk. LCD monitors take less space on desk top.
6 It has more weight than LCD monitors. It is light weight.
7 CRT monitors emit harmful radiations. LCD monitors do not emit harmful radiations.
8 It produces less sharp  output than LCD
monitors.
LCD monitors produce sharper and clear output.
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Thursday, March 29, 2012

Different Types of Monitors

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Monitor

Monitor is the most familiar output device. It is a display screen or visual display unit to show text and graphics to computer user. Common monitors look like a TV. Latest monitors are flat panel monitors like LCD monitors. Although LCD monitors are more costly than general old fashioned monitors called CRT monitors, they are light weight and don't emit radiations harmful to eyes.

Types of Monitors

There are the following main types of Monitors:

1. CRT Monitors

2. Flat Panel Monitors

3. Touch Screen Monitors

1. CRT Monitors




CRT stands for Cathode Ray Tube. CRT monitors use electronic beam gun to produce text and images. These electronic guns fire a beam of electrons on very tiny phosphorus dots on internal surface of screen. In color CRT monitors there are three electron beam guns for Red, Green and Blue colors. CRT monitors take more space on desk.

These are heavier than flat panel monitors. CRT monitors emit radiations which are harmful for human eyes. CRT monitors are less costly.

2. Flat Panel Monitors




 Flat panel monitors are thin, light weight and more compact and portable. Flat panel monitors take less space on desktop. Flat panel monitors do not emit harmful radiations. They consume less power than CRT monitors. They produce higher quality results than RCT monitors. Flat panel monitors are more costly than CRT monitors.

3. Touch Screen Monitors




Touch Screen Monitor is an input/output device. It uses a special touch sensitive screen. The User can enter data by touching icons or menus on the screen. As soon as the user selects a command from menu, output is displayed on screen. Commonly touch screen monitors use sensors to detect touch of finger.
Touch screen monitors are special input / output devices. Since they perform both functions that is, input and output at the same time, they are called dual devices or dual purpose devices or both input/output devices. ATM machines outside banks are one of the common examples of touch screen monitors.
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Tuesday, March 27, 2012

Units of Storage / Memory Measurement

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What are commonly used units of measuring storage?




Bit

Bit is a short for Binary Digit. 0 and 1 are the only binary digits. Bit is the smallest unit of measuring storage capacity. A bit can hold a 0 or 1.

Byte

A combination of 8 bits is called a Byte. A byte can hold one character.
1 Byte = 8 bits

Kilobyte (KB)

1024 bytes make one kilo byte. Kilo Byte is denoted by KB.
1 KB = 1024 Bytes

Megabyte (MB)

1024 Kilo bytes make one mega byte. Mega Byte is denoted by MB.
1 MB = 1024 KB

Gigabyte (GB)

1024 mega bytes make one Giga byte. Giga Byte is denoted by GB. 
1 GB = 1024 MB

Terabyte (TB)

1024 Giga bytes make one Tera byte. Tera Byte is denoted by TB. 
1 TB = 1024 GB

Petabyte (PB)

1024 Tera Bytes make one Peta byte. Peta Byte is denoted by PB. 
1 PB = 1024 TB

Exabyte (EB)

1024 Peta bytes make one Exa byte. Exa Byte is denoted by EB. 
1 EB = 1024 PB
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Tuesday, March 20, 2012

Types of e-Payment Security Protocols

1 comment

What are different security protocols for e-payment security schemes?




1. SSL Protocol (Secure Sockets Layer Protocol)

SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) is the standard security protocol for establishing an encrypted link between a web server and a browser. This link ensures that all data passed between the web server and browsers remain private and integral. SSL is used by millions of websites in the protection of their online transactions with their customers.
SSL or Secure Sockets Layer is a security protocol created by Netscape that has become an international standard on the Internet for exchanging sensitive information between a website and the client computer. SSL technology is embedded in all popular browsers and engages automatically when the user connects to a web server that is SSL-enabled. It's easy to tell when a server is using SSL security because the address in the URL window of your browser will start with https. The "s" indicates a secure connection.

2. SET ( Secure Electronic Transaction Protocol)


SET was initially designed by Visa and Master Card in 1997. Secure Electronic Transaction (SET) is a standard protocol for securing credit card transactions over the Internet.
To meet the business requirements, SET incorporates the following features:

* Confidentiality of information

* Integrity of data

* Cardholder account authentication

* Merchant authentication

In SET protocol there are four entities: cardholder, merchant, CA (certificate authority)and payment gateway. A certificate authority or certification authority (CA) is an entity that issues digital certificates. The role of a payment gateway is to connect the internet and the proprietary networks of banks. Each participation entity needs its own certificate. Electronic Wallet or e-wallet or digital wallet is software used to store certificate consumer’s personal computer.


Basics of eCommerce

  1. Definition and History of ECommerce
  2. Role of E-Commerce in Daily Life
  3. Classification of e-Commerce Applications
  4. Difference Between Electronic Market and IOS
  5. Types Of e-Commerce


Ecommerce Payment Systems/ ePayment

  1. Types of Popular e-Payment Systems
  2. Explain Credit Card Payment System
  3. Advantages Disadvantages of Credit Cards
  4. Difference Between Debit Card and Credit Card
  5. Types of E-payment Security Schemes
  6. Types of e-Payment Security Protocols

Read More...

Types of E-payment Security Schemes

2 comments

Explain E-payment Security Schemes




Following are the e-payment security schemes
1) Encryption 2) Certificates & Certificates Authority (CA) 3) Digital Signature
4) Digital Envelop 5) Message Digest 6) Transaction Certificates and Time Stamp

(1) Encryption

Encryption refers to changing a message into unreadable form. Later the encrypted message can be converted into readable form by Decryption.
There are two types of Encryption

(A) Secret Key Encryption/Private Key Encryption

In this scheme, same key called secret key is used by sender and receiver for Encryption (Making message unreadable) & Decryption (Getting original message).



Data Encryption Standards (DES) is the most widely used algorithm for secret key/private key encryption scheme.

(B) Public Key Cryptography




It is Also known as asymmetric Encryption. It uses two different keys (1) Private Key (2) Public Key. The receiver sends his public key to sender. The sender encrypts message with this public key. Then Message is sent to receiver. Now Receiver uses his private key to decrypt message.

2. Certificates & Certificates Authority (CA)

A certificate represents and identifying certificate issued by a trusted third party called Certificate of Authority. A certificate includes records such as series number name of Owner, Name of CA & Digital signature of CA.



(VeriSign is a most popular pioneering CA. Established in 1999).

3. Digital Signature

Digital signature is a phrase (like Ahmed, Saeed Malik). It Is Encrypted by Sender’s private key. Digital signature is attached with the encrypted message and sent to receiver. Digital signature ensures that sender is verified. Receiver will use sender’s public key to decrypt message.

4. Digital Envelope

Is another encryption scheme. It is used to encrypt a secret key with the receiver’s public key. Now encrypted message & key is sent to receiver. Receiver will open the key first and then he will decrypt the message with this key.

5. Message Digest

It helps to verify that a message is not changed in its way from sender to receiver. Message digest is a bit string. It is unique for each message. A special formula is called hash function is used to calculate message digest of a message. The encrypted message with message digest is sent to receiver. Now if message is changed in the way then its message digest will not match.

6. Transaction Certificates and Time Stamp

A transaction certificate attests to some fact about the conduct of a transaction. It can be used to prevent repudiation (denial). Similarly a time stamp ensures that a document was present at a particular time.


Basics of eCommerce

  1. Definition and History of ECommerce
  2. Role of E-Commerce in Daily Life
  3. Classification of e-Commerce Applications
  4. Difference Between Electronic Market and IOS
  5. Types Of e-Commerce


Ecommerce Payment Systems/ ePayment

  1. Types of Popular e-Payment Systems
  2. Explain Credit Card Payment System
  3. Advantages Disadvantages of Credit Cards
  4. Difference Between Debit Card and Credit Card
  5. Types of E-payment Security Schemes
  6. Types of e-Payment Security Protocols

Read More...

Difference Between Debit Card and Credit Card

1 comment
Difference Between Debit Card and Credit Card:





       
Debit Card
Credit Card
1.      Debit card id equal to your account value.
2.      It is an Asset
3.    To use a debit card customer should have      sufficient balance in his / her bank account.  
4.      It is like a Prepaid system
5.     You cannot buy an item with price higher then your balance.
1.    When you use Credit Card. You are Actually borrowing money from bank/financial institution
2.     It is Liability
3.     To use a Credit card customer may not have sufficient balance.
4.     It is like a Postpaid system
5.    You can buy an item with price higher then your bank balance (upto your credit limit.)

Basics of eCommerce

  1. Definition and History of ECommerce
  2. Role of E-Commerce in Daily Life
  3. Classification of e-Commerce Applications
  4. Difference Between Electronic Market and IOS
  5. Types Of e-Commerce


Ecommerce Payment Systems/ ePayment

  1. Types of Popular e-Payment Systems
  2. Explain Credit Card Payment System
  3. Advantages Disadvantages of Credit Cards
  4. Difference Between Debit Card and Credit Card
  5. Types of E-payment Security Schemes
  6. Types of e-Payment Security Protocols

Read More...

Advantages Disadvantages of Credit Cards

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Credit Card




The Credit Card is plastic credit card with a magnetic strip issued by a bank or financial institution. Holders of a valid credit card have the authorization to purchase goods and services up to a predetermined amount, called a credit limit. The vendor receives essential credit card information from the cardholder, the bank issuing the card actually repays the vendor, and eventually the cardholder repays the bank through regular monthly payments. If the entire balance is not paid in full, the credit card issuer can legally charge interest fees on the unpaid portion.

Benefits of Credit Cards to customers


1.  Convenience

The main benefit to each customer is convenience as carrying a credit card eliminates the need to carry any cash for most purposes.

2. Credit card allows small short-term loans

Compared to debit cards and checks, a credit card allows small short-term loans to be quickly made to a customer who need not calculate a balance remaining before every transaction, provided the total charges do not exceed the maximum credit line for the card.

3. More fraud protection than debit cards

 Credit cards also provide more fraud protection than debit cards. In the UK for example, the bank is jointly liable with the merchant for purchases of defective products over £100.

4. Rewards and benefits packages

Many credit cards offer rewards and benefits packages, such as offering enhanced product warranties at no cost and free loss/damage coverage on new purchases.

Drawbacks of Credit Cards

Compel you to spend more

Credit cards give you the purchasing freedom so they can compel you to spend more than what your budget would allow.

Prone to security issues

Credit cards are prone to security issues, especially when it comes to online transactions. This can be avoided by doing business with websites that employ a secured socket layer (SSL), however.

Interest Rates and Other Applicable Fee

Credit cards impose interest rates and other applicable fees.


Basics of eCommerce

  1. Definition and History of ECommerce
  2. Role of E-Commerce in Daily Life
  3. Classification of e-Commerce Applications
  4. Difference Between Electronic Market and IOS
  5. Types Of e-Commerce


Ecommerce Payment Systems/ ePayment

  1. Types of Popular e-Payment Systems
  2. Explain Credit Card Payment System
  3. Advantages Disadvantages of Credit Cards
  4. Difference Between Debit Card and Credit Card
  5. Types of E-payment Security Schemes
  6. Types of e-Payment Security Protocols

Read More...

Monday, March 19, 2012

Types of Popular e-Payment Systems

1 comment

What are the popular e-payment systems? Explain.







The following are the most popular e-payment systems
1) Credit Card 2) Debit card 3) EFT 4) Stored value cards and e-cash 5) e-checks


1: Credit Card

 

The Credit Card is plastic credit card with a magnetic strip issued by a bank or financial institution. Holders of a valid credit card have the authorization to purchase goods and services up to a predetermined amount, called a credit limit. The vendor receives essential credit card information from the cardholder, the bank issuing the card actually repays the vendor, and eventually the cardholder repays the bank through regular monthly payments. If the entire balance is not paid in full, the credit card issuer can legally charge interest fees on the unpaid portion.

2: Debit Card:

A debit card is a plastic card issued by banks to customers. The card allows instant purchase, removing the correct balance from the user’s attached bank account. Debit cards are distinct from credit cards in that they allow purchase based on available funds in the account to be deducted immediately, instead of by using a line of credit that can be repaid at a later time. Debit card/Check card is used instead of cash in shopping. The Buyer’s account is instantly debited. It is an alternative to carry cash or check book.
Advantages:

  • Obtaining Debit card is easier then Credit card.
  • Debit card frees you from carrying cash.
  • Merchants prefer debit card then check.

3.ELECTRONIC FUND TRANSFER (EFT):


Electronic fund transfer is used to transfer money value from one account to another in same or different bank electronically. EFT refers to any fund transfer initiated by an electronic terminal, including Credit card, ATM, Point of sale terminal or Internet based EFT.
EFT is safer, secure, efficient and less expensive. While it costs the U.S Govt $1.03 to issue each check payment. It costs only .05 cents to issue on EFT payments.

4. Stored value cards & E-Cash:


E-Cash is cash usually stored in smart card or E-Wallet. It can be used for micro E-Payments. Suppose a consumer has purchased a digital picture or listened a song for $.25 fee.
Now the minimum cost to process E-Payment by credit card is about $1.00 which should be charged to seller. In such cases E-Cash payment system can be used.

5. Electronic Check or e-check:

A form of payment made via the internet that is designed to perform the same function as a conventional paper check. Because the check is in an electronic format, it can be processed in fewer steps and has more security features than a standard paper check. Security features provided by electronic checks include authentication, public key cryptography and digital signatures. Electronic checks have been developed in response to the e-commerce transactions. Electronic checks can be used to make a payment for any transaction that a paper check can cover and are governed by the same laws that apply to paper checks.This is the first form of internet-based payment that the U.S. Treasury uses for making large online payments.
An eCheck is an electronic order to your bank to pay the amount specified from funds in either your checking or savings account. This is also referred to as a web check or an ACH payment.
To process an eCheck, you must enter your bank information into the student eCommerce system. The bank information needed is your bank's 9-digit bank routing number and either your checking or savings account number.
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Wednesday, March 14, 2012

Explain Credit Card Payment System

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Electronic Credit Card System on Internet

Credit cards are the most popular E-Payment method. The Credit Card is plastic credit card with a magnetic strip issued by a bank or financial institution. Holders of a valid credit card have the authorization to purchase goods and services up to a predetermined amount, called a credit limit. There are the following 5 entities involved in Credit Card System as follows:



Entities Involved in Credit Card Payment System

1. Card Holders.
2. Merchants
3. Card Issuer (Bank / financial institution for Card Holder)
4. Acquirer (Bank / financial institution for Merchant)
5. Card Brand (Company - Master, Visa card)



Process of using Credit Card


1. Issue a Credit card to potential card holder.
2. A person requests to an issuing bank for Credit Card. The bank approves or denies the application. If approved a plastic card is delivered to the customer by mail. The card holder calls the bank to activate the card.
3. Card holder shows card to merchant or enter information at website to buy something.
4. Merchant asks approval from Card Company. Transaction is paid by credit and Merchant keeps sales slip
5. Merchant sends sales slip to acquirer bank and pays fees for the service. This is called “capturing process”
6. Acquiring bank requests the card company to clear credit amount and gets paid
7. Then Card Company asks for clearance to issuing bank.
8. The amount is transferred from issuer to brand company. The same amount is deducted from card holder’s account in issuing bank.


Basics of eCommerce

  1. Definition and History of ECommerce
  2. Role of E-Commerce in Daily Life
  3. Classification of e-Commerce Applications
  4. Difference Between Electronic Market and IOS
  5. Types Of e-Commerce


Ecommerce Payment Systems/ ePayment

  1. Types of Popular e-Payment Systems
  2. Explain Credit Card Payment System
  3. Advantages Disadvantages of Credit Cards
  4. Difference Between Debit Card and Credit Card
  5. Types of E-payment Security Schemes
  6. Types of e-Payment Security Protocols

Read More...

Sunday, March 11, 2012

Types Of e-Commerce

6 comments

Types/Categories/Modes of e-commerce.

There are three main types of e-commerce as follows:

1) Business To Consumer (B2C)


B2C ecommerce consists of selling goods and services to individual consumers. In this type, consumers or customers can visit the website and purchase goods online. The website will have a StoreFront. This storefront will show product details, pictures and a shopping cart. Shopping cart is used to collect items to purchase.

Advantages of B2C e-commerce

B2C e-commerce has the following advantages:

* Shopping can be faster and more convenient.
* Offerings and prices can change instantaneously.
* Broadband telecommunications will enhance the
buying experience.

2) Business To Business (B2B)




B2B e-commerce takes place between two businesses. One business provides services to other business. Examples of B2B include:
Online Advertisement, recruiting, sales, marketing, technical support and training. For eample, some companies provide online purchasing, tracking and transaction facilities to other companies.

3) Consumer To Consumer (C2C)




C2C e-commerce takes place between two consumers. For example, one consumer sells an item through online auction. The other consumer purchases this item by offering the highest bid.
There are many sites offering free classifieds, auctions, and forums where individuals can buy and sell. Thanks to online payment systems like PayPal where people can send and receive money online with ease.


eBay's auction service is a great example of C2C where person-to-person transactions take place everyday since 1995.


Basics of eCommerce

  1. Definition and History of ECommerce
  2. Role of E-Commerce in Daily Life
  3. Classification of e-Commerce Applications
  4. Difference Between Electronic Market and IOS
  5. Types Of e-Commerce


Ecommerce Payment Systems/ ePayment

  1. Types of Popular e-Payment Systems
  2. Explain Credit Card Payment System
  3. Advantages Disadvantages of Credit Cards
  4. Difference Between Debit Card and Credit Card
  5. Types of E-payment Security Schemes
  6. Types of e-Payment Security Protocols

Read More...

Wednesday, March 7, 2012

Difference Between Electronic Market and IOS

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IOS
E-Market
1
IOS may use private or publicly accessible network.
E-Market may use publicly accessible network.
2
Customer supplier relationship is determined in advance. It is expected that it is ongoing relationship for multiple transaction.
Two types of relationship (i) Customer to seller linkage is established at time of transaction for one time only.  (ii) Customer seller linkage is established for a fixed time period.

3
Agreements on nature and format of business document.
Sellers market maker determine which transaction they will provide.
4
Advance arrangements are made so that both parties know which communication network will be used for system
Customer and seller independently determine which communication network they will use.
5
Joint guidelines are formulated so that each party will know how system is used.
No joint guideline are formulated in advance.


Basics of eCommerce

  1. Definition and History of ECommerce
  2. Role of E-Commerce in Daily Life
  3. Classification of e-Commerce Applications
  4. Difference Between Electronic Market and IOS
  5. Types Of e-Commerce


Ecommerce Payment Systems/ ePayment

  1. Types of Popular e-Payment Systems
  2. Explain Credit Card Payment System
  3. Advantages Disadvantages of Credit Cards
  4. Difference Between Debit Card and Credit Card
  5. Types of E-payment Security Schemes
  6. Types of e-Payment Security Protocols

Read More...

Classification of e-Commerce Applications

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Electronic Market: is a place where online shoppers and buyers meet. E-market handles business transaction including bank-to-bank money transfer also.  In e-market, the business center is not a physical building.  But it is a network-based location where business activities occur.  In e-market, the participants like buyers, sellers and transaction handler are not only one different locations but even they do not know each other.
Inter Organizational Information System (IOS): An IOS is a unified system with several business partners.  A typical IOS will include a company and its supplier and customers.  Through IOS buyers and sellers arrange routine business transactions.  Information is exchanged over communication network using specific formats.  So, There is no need for telephone calls, papers, documents or correspondence
TYPES OF IOS
1)    EDI(Electronic Data Interchange):  It provide secure B2B connection over value added network(Van’s)
2)     Extranet: which provide secure B2B connection over internet.
3)     EFT(Electronic Fund Transfer):  Electronic Fund Transfer from one account to another.
4)     Electronic Forms.  Online (web-pages) forms on internet.
5)     Shared Data Base: information stored in repositories (collection of data) shared by trading partners
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Monday, March 5, 2012

Role of E-Commerce in Daily Life

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Role of e-commerce




The role of e-commerce in daily life is becoming very important. E-commerce can be used in the following ways:

1) Online Education


Online education is becoming very popular. Different types of interactive tutorials are available on internet. The students can download online books and tutorials free or with some price. Some websites provide online lectures for students.

2) Electronic Banking


Many banks are now introducing online banking. You can connect to your bank using your computer via internet. You can perform daily financial dealings from home. Many customers pay their bills using electronic banking.

3) Electronic Shopping


Now, People can shop from home using internet. Different manufacturers present their products on internet. People visit their website and select suitable products to purchase. Credit card is normally used to make a payment online.

4) Job Search


Internet is used to search different types of jobs all over the world. Many websites provides information to people about job vacancies.

5) Conducting Auctions


Many websites provide the facility of auction. People participate in auction to purchase a product. They can also pay the price using cedit card. A popular website eBay.com is providing the auction facility.

6) Collaboration with partners


Businessmen can collaborate with their partners using internet. They can discuss ideas and exchange views . they can make strategies in collaboration with their business partners all over the world.

7) Marketing and Advertising


E-commerce is playing an important role to market and advertise products all over the world. The use of advertisement on popular websites can be effective way to introduce a product to customers in the world.

8) Providing Customer Services


Business men can interact with their customers using internet. This can be faster and more convenient to access.


Basics of eCommerce

  1. Definition and History of ECommerce
  2. Role of E-Commerce in Daily Life
  3. Classification of e-Commerce Applications
  4. Difference Between Electronic Market and IOS
  5. Types Of e-Commerce


Ecommerce Payment Systems/ ePayment

  1. Types of Popular e-Payment Systems
  2. Explain Credit Card Payment System
  3. Advantages Disadvantages of Credit Cards
  4. Difference Between Debit Card and Credit Card
  5. Types of E-payment Security Schemes
  6. Types of e-Payment Security Protocols

Read More...

Definition and History of ECommerce

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What do you mean by E-Commerce?




Electronic Commerce (e-Commerce) is a general concept covering any
form of business transaction or information exchange executed using
information and communication technologies (ICTs). e-Commerce takes place between companies, between companies and their customers, or between companies and public administrations. Electronic Commerce includes electronic trading of goods, services and electronic material.

BRIEF HISTORY OF E-COMMERCE

+ E-commerce started in early 1970’s with invention of electronic fund transfer(EFT).
+ Only used by large organizations, financial institutions and a few small business at that time.
+ After invention of EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) from financial institutions to manufacturers retailers, services and so on.
+ Many other e-commerce applications started from stock trading to travel reservation system.
+ With commercialization of internet in early 1990’s. The term electronic commerce was used. Internet provided millions of customers. E.C applications expanded rapidly.
+ One reason for rapid expansion of E.C was development of networks protocols and software. Other resources were business competition and customer value.
+ From 1995 to 1999, there were many E.C applications like advertisement and auction.
+ Almost every medium and large sized organizations in USA has a website. Many are very expensive. For example, in 1999 General Motors Corporation (www.gm.com) has offered 1800 pages information about products, services and dealers.


Basics of eCommerce

  1. Definition and History of ECommerce
  2. Role of E-Commerce in Daily Life
  3. Classification of e-Commerce Applications
  4. Difference Between Electronic Market and IOS
  5. Types Of e-Commerce


Ecommerce Payment Systems/ ePayment

  1. Types of Popular e-Payment Systems
  2. Explain Credit Card Payment System
  3. Advantages Disadvantages of Credit Cards
  4. Difference Between Debit Card and Credit Card
  5. Types of E-payment Security Schemes
  6. Types of e-Payment Security Protocols

Read More...

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