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Sunday, November 30, 2014

How Functions are Used in Excel Fast and Easy Way 3

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What is a Function in Microsoft Excel?

Microsoft Excel provides a large number of Functions for processing data in Excel Worksheets easily. Functions are predefined formulas in Excel. These functions are used in different types of calculations on numerical or other data  quickly.

How a Function is Used in Microsoft Excel?

There are three popular ways to use built-in functions in Microsoft Excel.

1. Type Functions Manually
2. Use Function Library Commands
3. Use Insert Function Dialogue Box

1. Type Functions Manually

You can type a function manually in the required cell. First of all press Equal key from keyboard. Then start typing function name, for example, type SUM. A formula autocomplete list box will be displayed. Press TAB key when SUM is selected in the autocomplete formula list box. Type cell reference of first cell, suppose A1, type a colon ( : ). Type the cell reference of the last cell, suppose A4 as shown in the figure. Press Enter. You will see the result 100 in this cell.
How Functions are used in Microsoft Excel Quick and Easy Way 3


A function is used by its name and providing some arguments to the function. The arguments are the necessary data values for calculation. Moreover, there is an EQUAL sign before every function name.
How to type a function manually

General Syntax of a Function in Microsoft Excel


=FunctionName(Argument1, Argument2,...)
Arguments can be numbers in mathematical functions or cell references etc. If the cell references are used the syntax becomes
=FunctionName(CellRef1:CellRef2)
where CellRef1 represents the cell reference of the first cell in the range and CellRef2 represents the cell reference of the last cell in the range. For example in the given figure,
=SUM(A1:A4)

2. Use Function Library Commands


Another way to insert a function in a cell is to use the icons in the Formulas each of which is a drop-down control.

How to use a function through FUNCTION LIBRARY COMMANDS in Excel
When you select a function from one of these lists, Excel displays its Function Arguments dialog box to help you enter arguments. The rest of the procedure is the same as in first method.



3. Use Insert Function Dialogue Box


HOw to Use Insert Function Dialog Box in Microsoft Excel
Using the Insert Function dialog box ensures that you spell the function correctly and that it contains the proper number of arguments in the correct order. Select a suitable category of the function, for example, if you want to use SUM function then it will be found in Math & Trig category of functions. Search and select the function SUM and click on OK button. Now Function arguments dialog box will open, type suitable arguments.

To insert a function, select the function from the Insert Function dialog box, as shown in Figure

You access this dialog box by

  • Choosing Formulas, Function Library,Insert Function
  • Choosing Formulas,Function Library, AutoSum, and then clicking More Functions in the

drop-down list

       In Function Arguments dialog box, you can enter the cell reference of first cell and a colon ( : ) and the cell reference of the last cell to add all the numbers in the cells between these two cells including, as shown in the figure. After giving argument values click on Ok button and the result 100 will be shown in the required cell.
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Thursday, November 27, 2014

Using Simple Formulas in Excel With Arithmetic Operators-2

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What are Arithmetic Operators in Excel?


Arithmetic Operators are used to perform arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication and division etc. There are following arithmetic operators in Microsoft Excel:

1.  + Operator


The + arithmetic operator is used to perform addition of numbers. It is used with in formulas along with Cell References normally. For example, to add the number 10 in A1 cell and the number 20 in B1 cell, we can write a formula =A1+B1 in cell C1. After pressing Enter key we will see the answer 30 in the cell C1.

Important Points To Write a Simple Formula in Excel


  1. Every formula in Microsoft Excel is started with an Equal sign ( = ).
  2. Arithmetic operators (+ for addition, - for subtraction, * for multiplication, / for division) are used.
  3. Percentage is calculated by % operator. ( =B2*10%       means 10% of the number in cell B2)
  4. Power function is performed by ^ operator. (3^2 will give 9) 

Use of addition arithmetic operator in Excel


2.  - Operator


The - arithmetic operator is used to perform subtraction of numbers. It is used with in formulas along with Cell References normally. For example, to subtract the number 100 in B1 cell from the number 50 in A1 cell, we can write a formula =B1-A1 in cell C1. After pressing Enter key we will see the answer 50 in the cell C1.
Use of subtraction arithmetic operator in Excel


3.  * Operator


The * arithmetic operator is used to perform multiplication of numbers. It is used with in formulas along with Cell References normally.

Use of multiplication arithmetic operator in Excel
For example, to multiply the number 10 in A1 cell with the number 20 in B1 cell, we can write a formula =A1*B1 in cell C1. After pressing Enter key we will see the answer 200 in the cell C1.


4.  / Operator


The / arithmetic operator is used to perform division of numbers and gives quotient of the division. It is used with in formulas along with Cell References normally.

Use of division arithmetic operator in Excel
 For example, to divide the number 10 in A1 cell by the number 5 in B1 cell, we can write a formula =A1/B1 in cell C1. After pressing Enter key we will see the answer 2 in the cell C1.


5. % Operator


The % arithmetic operator is used to calculate percentage. It is used with in formulas along with Cell References normally.

Use of Percentage arithmetic operator in Excel

For example, to calculate the 10 % of the number 1000 in A1 cell, we can write a formula =A1*10% in cell B1. We will read the formula =A1*10% as "10% of A1" means 10% of the number in cell A1. After pressing Enter key we will see the answer 100 in the cell B1.




6.  ^ Operator  (Exponent operator or Power operator)


The ^ arithmetic operator is used to calculate a number n raised to the power p. For example 2^3 is equal to 8 ( 2 raised to the power 3).
 Use of exponent - Power arithmetic operator in Excel
It is used with in formulas along with Cell References normally. For example, to calculate 2 raised to the power 3, type 2 in Cell A1 and 3 in cell B1. Now we can write a formula =A1^B1 in cell C1. After pressing Enter key we will see the answer 8 in the cell C1.


Order of Precedence of Arithmetic Operators in Excel


Order of precedence means the order in which operations will be performed when evaluating an expression in Microsoft Excel.

1. First of all the operation in parentheses ( ) is performed if any. If nested parentheses exist in expression, then the inner most parentheses will be evaluated first.
2. Secondly, Exponents will be evaluated if any.
3. In third step, multiplications and divisions will be calculated from left to right order.
4. In fourth step, additions and subtractions will be performed in Left to Right order.

Example: Evaluate the following expression according to the order of precedence in Excel
               =A1*B1-C1*(20+3)
Order of precedence of Arithmetic Operators in Microsoft Excel

Solution:  Let A1=10,   B1=5,    C1=2
             
               Step 1. First of all parentheses (20+3) is evaluated to 23
                             Now expression becomes  =A1*B1-C1*23
              Step 2. Now there is no exponents, so we check multiplication and division. There are
                          two multiplication operators. Since A1*B1 is on left so we evaluate it by putting values
                          10*5 the answer is 50. Therefore expression is reduced to =50-C1*23
              Step 3. Now we will evaluate multiplication C1*23. Putting values 2*23 and the answer is
                          46. So the expression becomes  50-46.
              Step 4. Now we will evaluate the last operation of subtraction 50-46 which gives the answer 4.
   
                                 

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Monday, November 24, 2014

Microsoft Excel Formulas and Functions Fast and Easy Way -1

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Introduction


Using Formulas and Functions in Microsoft Excel is really a tough job for new students. This is a series of tutorials to make the use of Formulas and Functions in worksheets, easy with various real life example worksheets.
مائیکروسافٹ ایکسل میں فارمولوں اور فنکشنزکا استعمال نئے طلبا کے لیے ہمیشہ سے ایک مسئلہ رہا ہے۔ میری کوشش ہے کہ فارمولا اور فنکشن کا ٹاپک پریکٹیکلی اور پکچرز کے ساتھ تفصیل سے بیان کروں۔

Let,s start.

By: Mahmood Alam,
      Instructor IT,
      Government Post Graduate College of Commerce,
      Rahim Yar Khan.


What is Microsoft Excel?


Microsoft Excel is a popular application software used to manage data in the form of rows and columns and using Excel formulas and built-in Excel functions to perform various calculations on these data. Microsoft Excel is a part of Microsoft Office. We can make different types of worksheets in Excel, for example:
  1. Employee Pay Sheet
  2. Student Test Score Result Sheet with Grades Calculation
  3. Simple Electricity Bill Calculation Formula

What is an Excel Formula?


Excel Formula is a proper combination of operators (like +, -, /, *) and operands. A formula is used to perform different types of calculations and gives result. For example a formula to add numbers in cells A1 and A2 will be typed as =A1+A2.
Note: +, -, / and * are called arithmetic operators in Excel to calculate addition, subtraction, division and multiplication respectively.
Note: A1 and A2 are the Cell References of two cells situated in worksheet. A1 represents the cell in Row number 1 of Column A Whereas A2 represents the cell in Row number 2 of Column A.
Understanding Cell References in Excel

 What is a Cell Reference?


A Cell Reference is a special Reference Number made by combining Column name and Row Number. Actually a Cell Reference is used to access contents of a cell within a formula. For example, "A1" is an example of Cell Reference. "A" is taken from column name and "1" is taken from Row number. Therefore the intersection cell of column A and Row number 1 is called "A1". Look at the above picture to understand the concept of Cell Reference and how it is made.

How To Use a Cell Reference in a Formula?

Start Microsoft Excel with a new blank workbook. Type 100 in cell A1 and 200 in Cell B1. Now you want to add the two numbers typed in the cell A1 and B1 respectively.

How to enter Excel Formula for Adding two numbers by cell references
You must enter a formula using Cell References of both these cells. Every formula in Excel can be started with an equal sign  =. Now type "=" then type cell reference A1. Type + operator ( by pressing Shift and equal to key together ). Now type cell reference B1. Press Enter key. The result of addition will be displayed in cell C1 which is 300.
Result of addition formula using cell references


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Friday, November 21, 2014

Advantages and Disadvantages of LAN Local Area Network

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LAN - Local Area Network


LAN stands for Local Area Network. It normally connects the computers and other devices within one office, building or a group of nearby buildings.
Advantages Disadvantages of LAN - Local Area Network

Advantages of LAN or Local Area Network

1. Resource Sharing

Computer resources like printers, modems, DVD-Rom drives and hard disks can be shared with the help of local area networks. This will reduce cost of hardware purchases.

2. Software Applications Sharing

It is cheaper to use same software over network instead of purchasing separate licensed software for each client in a network.

3. Easy and Cheap Communication

Data and messages can easily be transferred over networked computers.

4. Centralized Data

The data of all network users can be saved on hard disk of the server computer. This will help users to use any workstation in a network to access their data. Because data is not stored on workstations locally.

5. Data Security

Since, data is stored on server computer centrally, it will be easy to manage data at only one place and the data will be more secure too.

6. Internet Sharing

Local Area Network provides the facility to share a single internet connection among all the LAN users. In Net Cafes, single internet connection sharing system keeps the internet expenses cheaper.

Disadvantages of LAN or Local Area Network

1. High Setup Cost

Although the LAN will save cost over time due to shared computer resources but the initial setup costs of installing Local Area Networks is high.

2. Privacy Violations

 The LAN administrator has the rights to check personal data files of each and every LAN user. Moreover he can check the internet history and computer use history of the LAN users.

3. Data Security Threat

Unauthorized users can access important data of an organization if centralized data repository is not secured properly by the LAN administrator.

4. LAN Maintenance Job

Local Area Network requires a LAN Administrator. Because, there are problems of software installations or hardware failures or cable disturbances in Local Area Network. A LAN Administrator is needed at this full time job.

5. Covers Limited Area


Local Area Network covers a small area like one office, one building or a group of nearby buildings.




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