Skip to main content

Explain Data Processing Cycle and Main Activities of Data Processing Cycle

After collecting data, it is processed to convert into information. The data is processed again and again until accurate result is achieved. This is called data processing cycle.
Data processing cycle involves following three basic activities:

Major Activities Involved in Data Processing Cycle

Explain data processing cycle and activities involved in data processing cycle
Explain Data processing cycle

1. Input
2. Processing
3. Output


It is the process in which collected data is given to computer after converting into binary form. Input step can be further divided into following steps:

i) Planning

Here objectives of data processing are defined. For example, in examination system, objective is to process student examination data to get result cards.

ii) Data Collecting

Here data is collected. Data is the raw material for data processing. This must be accurate for getting accurate results.

iii) Input

Here data is entered into computer.

iv) Verification

Here collected data is verified to determine whether it is valid for processing. For example marks must be in numeric form.

v) Coding

Data is stored in computer in binary form. Here data is converted (or coded) into computer readable (binary) form.


Now data is ready for processing. We process collected data to convert into information. Some important activities in processing are as following:

i) Data Classification

Here data is classified into different groups or sub-groups. So that it can be handled easily and separately. For example if we collect data about students of a college we will divide them into D.Com and B.Com class groups.

ii) Data Sorting

Here data is arranged in some order. So that it can be accessed quickly. For example we can sort student data by Roll number or name.

iii) Data Calculation/Processing

Here arithmetic and logical operations are performed on data to get the required result. For example total marks of each student are calculated.


After completing the processing, output is received. Output step involves following steps:

i) Testing

The results are tested to find if they are according to requirements. And any errors are removed. If results are not satisfactory then we repeat above-mentioned steps again and again until the accurate results are found.

ii) Summarizing

Huge results are summarized to make them short and precise.

iii) Storing results

The results are stored properly on secondary storage devices for future use.

iv) Output the result

Here output is produced as softcopy on screen or as hard copy as printout. Information is sent to different places as needed.

v) Feed Back

In this step we take comments from users about output results. If results are not satisfactory then we repeat above-mentioned steps again and again until the accurate results are found. This is all about Data Processing Cycle.

You would also like to read:

Define data and information with examples 
Explain difference between data and information
Explain data processing cycle. What is data processing cycle?
Explain Different types of data processing. What are different levels of data processing?
What is the need / importance of electronic data processing in business?


Unknown said…
This was something I was searching for and almost met my requirement! Thank you for describing each stage so well. In addition to this I would like to give reference of another article ( )along with which I was able to get complete information for my project.

Once again, thanks for the awesome and detailed piece of knowledge!

Popular posts from this blog

Define Data and Information With Examples

DATA Data is the collection of raw facts and figures. Actually data is unprocessed, that is why data is called collection of raw facts and figures. Define Data and Information with Examples We collect data from different resources. After collection, data is entered into computer for processing. Data may be collection of words, numbers, pictures,  or sounds etc. Examples of Data 1) Student Data on Admission Forms When students get admission in a college. They fill admission form. This form  contains raw facts (data of student) like name, father’s name, address of student, obtained marks, photo graph etc. 2)    Data of Citizens During census, data of all citizens is collected. The staff will go house to house and collect data about citizens like number of persons living in a home, either they are literate or illiterate, number of children, data of each child, cast, religion, Computerized national Identity Card number, address, how many rooms and other facilities in the

Important Objective Type Questions 101-155

MMC stands for multimedia card. SD stands for secure digital card. System Bus  is used to connect main components of a computer such as cpu and main memory. A Port is an interface or a point of attachments. POS stands for Point Of Sale terminal. ATM stands for Automated Teller Machine. PIN stands for Personal identification number. Kbps stands for kilobits per second. Mbps stands for megabits per second. A port that transmits one bit at a time is called Serial Port. A type of port that transmits many bits at a time is called Parallel Port. LPT stands for Line Printer. Examples of system software are Operating System, Utility Programs and Device Drivers. Examples of operating systems are DOS, Windows, Unix and Linux. Examples of Utility programs are File Manager, Image Viewer, Disk Scanner and File Compressor. Software used to detect and remove viruses is called Antivirus . Examples of antivirus programs are Mcaffee, Avast,

Advantages and Disadvantages of Ring Network Topology

Topic: Advantages and Disadvantages of Ring Network Topology alongwith detailed working of Ring topology What Do You Mean by Ring Topology? In Ring topology, each computer is connected to the next computer such that last computer is connected to the first. Every computer is connected to next computer in the ring. Each computer retransmits what it receives from the previous computer. Suppose, computer A needs to send data to computer D. Now the computer A sends data to computer B. As computer B is not the destination computer, so it will retransmit data to computer C. Finally, Computer C will transfer data to computer D, the destination computer. When a node sends a message, the message is processed by each computer in the ring. If a computer is not the destination node, it will pass the message to the next node, until the message arrives at its destination. Advantages of Ring Network Topology 1. It is relatively less expensive than a star topology network. 2. In a Rin